An uninterruptible power supply, UPS or battery/flywheel backup, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source, typically mains power fails. The on battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short 5 -15 minutes being typical for smaller units-but sufficient to allow time to bring an auxiliary power source on line, or to properly shut down the protected equipment. While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss
UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor to large units powering entire data centers, buildings, or even cities. The general categories of modern UPS systems are on-line-interactive or standby. An online UPS use a “double conversion” method of accepting Ac input, rectifying to DC for passing through the rechargeable battery ( or battery strings ), then inverting back to 120V/230V Ac for powering the protected equipments. A line Interactive UPS maintains the inverter input line and redirects the battery’s DC current path from the normal charging mode to supplying current when power is lost. In a standby (off line) system the load is powered directly by the input power and the backup power circuitry is only invoked when the utility power fails. Most UPS below 1KVA are of the line-interactive or standby variety which are usually less expensive.
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